Policy portal Stability & Supervision

When trust in the financial system disappears, panic sets in: fire sales of financial assets and bank runs can make the entire system collapse. Taxpayers are forced to bail out “too-big-to-fail” institutions to protect essential economic functions (deposits, credit, payment systems).

Mitigating implicit “moral hazard” requires sound prudential policies protecting essential banking services from excessive risk-taking and maintaining adequate capital levels to cover possible losses. Well-resourced, and independent supervision is also key. Finally, prudential regulation must also respond to new risks related to digitalisation (see “Digital Finance”) and climate change (see climate risk under “Sustainable Finance”).

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Consultation response

ESMA consultation on Disclosure Requirements Applicable to Credit Ratings


Cheat sheet: What is CRA 3?

CRA 3 Key Issues A credit rating agency (CRA) provides opinions on the creditworthiness of entities such as companies or governments and of debt instruments such as bonds. The biggest three CRAs are Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s and Fitch, which together cover approximately 95% of the world market. The second revision of the CRA Regulation (CRA3) reviews the EU’s regulatory framework for CRAs.

Evidence at Parliament ECON hearing on CRA3

Finance Watch evidence at a European Parliament ECON Committee public hearing on the European Commission’s proposed reforms of credit ratings agencies (CRA3). Press release 24 Jan 2012

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